Safety / Survival / Army Field Manuals / AFM 3-05.70
16-1. As a survivor on the open sea, you will face waves and wind. You may also face extreme heat or cold. To keep these environmental hazards from becoming serious problems, take precautionary measures as soon as possible. Use the available resources to protect yourself from the elements and from heat or extreme cold and humidity.
16-2. Protecting yourself from the elements meets only one of your basic needs. You must also be able to obtain water and food. Satisfying these basic needs will help prevent serious physical and psychological problems. However, you must also know how to treat health problems that may arise.
16-3. Your survival at sea depends upon your—
16-4. When you board a ship or aircraft, find out what survival equipment is on board, where it is stowed, and what it contains. For instance, how many life preservers and lifeboats or rafts are on board? Where are they located? What type of survival equipment do they have? How much food, water, and medicine do they contain? How many people can be supported? Also, if you are responsible for other personnel on board, make sure you know where they are and they know where you are.
DOWN AT SEA
16-5. If your aircraft goes down at sea, take the following actions. Whether you are in the water or in a raft, you should—
16-6. A search for survivors usually takes place around the entire area of and near the crash site. Missing personnel may be unconscious and floating low in the water. Figure 16-1, illustrates three rescue procedures.
Figure 16-1. Rescue From Water
16-7. The best technique for rescuing personnel from the water is to throw them a life preserver attached to a line (A). Another is to send a swimmer (rescuer) from the raft with a line attached to a flotation device that will support the rescuer's weight (B). This device will help conserve a rescuer's energy while recovering the survivor. The least acceptable technique is to send an attached swimmer without flotation devices to retrieve a survivor (C). In all cases, the rescuer wears a life preserver. A rescuer should not underestimate the strength of a panic-stricken person in the water. A careful approach can prevent injury to the rescuer.
16-8. When the rescuer approaches a survivor in trouble from behind, there is little danger the survivor will kick, scratch, or grab him. The rescuer swims to a point directly behind the survivor and grasps the life preserver's backstrap. The rescuer uses the sidestroke to drag the survivor to the raft.
16-9. If you are in the water, make your way to a raft. If no rafts are available, try to find a large piece of floating debris to cling to. Relax; a person who knows how to relax in ocean water is in very little danger of drowning. The body's natural buoyancy will keep at least the top of the head above water, but some movement is needed to keep the face above water.
16-10. Floating on your back takes the least energy. Lie on your back in the water, spread your arms and legs, and arch your back. By controlling your breathing in and out, your face will always be out of the water and you may even sleep in this position for short periods. Your head will be partially submerged, but your face will be above water. If you cannot float on your back or if the sea is too rough, float facedown in the water as shown in Figure 16-2.
Figure 16-2. Floating Position
16-11. The following are the best swimming strokes during a survival situation:
16-12. If you are in an area where surface oil is burning—
NOTE: If you have an uninflated life preserver, keep it.
16-13. If you are in oil-covered water that is free of fire, hold your head high to keep the oil out of your eyes. Attach your life preserver to your wrist and then use it as a raft.
16-14. If you have a life preserver, you can stay afloat for an indefinite period. In this case, use the "Heat Escaping Lessening Posture (HELP)" body position (Figure 16-3). Remain still and assume the fetal position to help you retain body heat. You lose about 50 percent of your body heat through your head. Therefore, keep your head out of the water. Other areas of high heat loss are the neck, the sides, and the groin.
Figure 16-3. HELP Position
16-15. If you are in a raft (also see Raft Procedures)—
Figure 16-4. Inflating the Raft
Figure 16-5. Sea Anchor
16-16. Also adjust the sea anchor so that when the raft is on the wave's crest, the sea anchor is in the wave's trough (Figure 16-6).
Figure 16-6. Deployment of the Sea Anchor
NOTE: Lookout duty should not exceed 2 hours. Keep in mind and remind others that cooperation is one of the keys to survival.
COLD WEATHER CONSIDERATIONS
16-17. If you are in a cold climate—
16-18. The greatest threat you face when submerged in cold water is death due to hypothermia. The average ocean temperature around the world is only 11 degrees C (51 degrees F). However, do not be fooled by warm water—hypothermia can even occur in 27-degree C (80-degree F) water. When you are immersed in cold water, hypothermia occurs rapidly due to the decreased insulating quality of wet clothing and the result of water displacing the layer of still air that normally surrounds the body. The rate of heat exchange in water is about 25 times greater than it is in air of the same temperature. Figure 16-7 lists life expectancy times for immersion in water.
Figure 16-7. Life Expectancy Times for Immersion in Water
16-19. Your best protection against the effects of cold water is to get into the life raft, stay dry, and insulate your body from the cold surface of the bottom of the raft. If these actions are not possible, wearing an antiexposure suit will extend your life expectancy considerably. Remember, keep your head and neck out of the water and well insulated from the cold water's effects when the temperature is below 19 degrees C (66 degrees F). Wearing life preservers increases the predicted survival time as body position in the water increases the chance of survival.
HOT WEATHER CONSIDERATIONS
16-20. If you are in a hot climate—
16-21. Most of the rafts in the U.S. Army and Air Force inventories can satisfy the needs for personal protection, mode of travel, and evasion and camouflage.
NOTE: Before boarding any raft, remove and tether (attach) your life preserver to yourself or the raft. Ensure there are no other metallic or sharp objects on your clothing or equipment that could damage the raft. After boarding the raft, don your life preserver again.
16-23. The one-man raft has a main cell inflation. If the CO2 bottle should malfunction or if the raft develops a leak, you can inflate it by mouth.
16-24. The spray shield acts as a shelter from the cold, wind, and water. In some cases, this shield serves as insulation. The raft's insulated bottom limits the conduction of cold thereby protecting you from hypothermia (Figure 16-8).
Figure 16-8. One-Man Raft With Spray Shield
16-25. You can travel more effectively by inflating or deflating the raft to take advantage of the wind or current. You can use the spray shield as a sail while the ballast buckets serve to increase drag in the water. You may use the sea anchor to control the raft's speed and direction.
16-26. There are rafts developed for use in tactical areas that are black. These rafts blend with the sea's background. You can further modify these rafts for evasion by partially deflating them to obtain a lower profile.
16-27. A lanyard connects the one-man raft to a parachutist (survivor) landing in the water. You (the survivor) inflate it upon landing. You do not swim to the raft, but pull it to you via the lanyard. The raft may hit the water upside down, but you can right it by approaching the side to which the bottle is attached and flipping the raft over. The spray shield must be in the raft to expose the boarding handles. Follow the five As outlined under raft procedures above when boarding the raft (Figure 16-9).
Figure 16-9. Boarding the One-Man Raft
16-28. If you have an arm injury, the best way to board is by turning your back to the small end of the raft, pushing the raft under your buttocks, and lying back. Another way to board the raft is to push down on its small end until one knee is inside and lie forward (Figure 16-10).
Figure 16-10. Other Methods of Boarding the One-Man Raft
16-29. In rough seas, it may be easier for you to grasp the small end of the raft and, in a prone position, to kick and pull yourself into the raft. When you are lying face down in the raft, deploy and adjust the sea anchor. To sit upright, you may have to disconnect one side of the seat kit and roll to that side. Then you adjust the spray shield. There are two variations of the one-man raft; the improved model incorporates an inflatable spray shield and floor that provide additional insulation. The spray shield helps keep you dry and warm in cold oceans and protects you from the sun in the hot climates (Figure 16-11).
Figure 16-11. One-Man Raft With Spray Shield Inflated
16-30. Some multiplace aircraft carry the seven-man raft. It is a component of the survival drop kit (Figure 16-12). This raft may inflate upside down and require you to right the raft before boarding. Always work from the bottle side to prevent injury if the raft turns over. Facing into the wind, the wind provides additional help in righting the raft. Use the handles on the inside bottom of the raft for boarding (Figure 16-13).
Figure 16-12. Seven-Man Raft
Figure 16-13. Method of Righting Raft
16-31. Use the boarding ramp if someone holds down the raft's opposite side. If you don't have help, again work from the bottle side with the wind at your back to help hold down the raft. Follow the five As outlined in paragraph 16-22. Then grasp an oarlock and boarding handle, kick your legs to get your body prone on the water, and then kick and pull yourself into the raft. If you are weak or injured, you may partially deflate the raft to make boarding easier (Figure 16-14).
Figure 16-14. Method of Boarding Seven-Man Raft
16-32. Use the hand pump to keep the buoyancy chambers and cross seat firm. Never overinflate the raft.
25-, 35-, and 46-Man Rafts
16-33. You may find 25-, 35-, or 46-man rafts in multiplace aircraft (Figure 16-15). The 20-man raft has been discontinued. The rafts are stowed in raft compartments on the outside of the fuselage, usually on the wings, alongside the upper half of the port (left) side of the aircraft. There will always be enough raft space to accommodate all personnel on each type of aircraft. If the number of personnel exceeds the maximum number of raft spaces, additional rafts will be centerline-loaded and ratchet-strapped to the cargo bay floor. Some may be automatically deployed from the cockpit or from stations within the cargo area, usually near the crew chief's station, while others may need manual deployment. No matter how the raft lands in the water, it is ready for boarding. A lanyard connects the accessory kit to the raft and you retrieve the kit by hand. You must manually inflate the center chamber with the hand pump. Board the 25-, 35-, or 46-man raft from the aircraft, if possible. If not, board in the following manner:
Figure 16-15. 25-Man Raft
16-34. An incompletely inflated raft will make boarding easier. Approach the intersection of the raft and ramp, grasp the upper boarding handle, and swing one leg onto the center of the ramp, as in mounting a horse.
16-35. Immediately tighten the equalizer clamp upon entering the raft to prevent deflating the entire raft in case of a puncture (Figure 16-16).
Figure 16-16. Immediate Action—Multiplace Raft
16-36. Use the pump to keep these rafts' chambers and center ring firm. They should be well rounded but not overly tight. The center rings keep the center of the floor afloat, and give raft occupants something to brace their feet against to prevent all occupants from sliding toward the center.
16-37. Rafts do not have keels, therefore, you can't sail them into the wind. However, anyone can sail a raft downwind. You can successfully sail the seven-man raft 10 degrees off from the direction of the wind. Do not try to sail the raft unless land is near. If you decide to sail and the wind is blowing toward a desired destination, fully inflate the raft, sit high, take in the sea anchor, rig a sail, and use an oar as a rudder.
16-38. In the seven-man raft, erect a square sail in the bow using the oars and their extensions as the mast and crossbar (Figure 16-17). You may use a waterproof tarpaulin or parachute material for the sail. If the raft has no regular mast socket and step, erect the mast by tying it securely to the front cross seat using braces. Pad the bottom of the mast to prevent it from chafing or punching a hole through the floor, whether or not there is a socket. The heel of a shoe, with the toe wedged under the seat, makes a good improvised mast step. Do not secure the corners of the lower edge of the sail. Hold the lines attached to the corners with your hands so that a gust of wind will not rip the sail, break the mast, or capsize the raft.
Figure 16-17. Sail Construction
16-39. Take every precaution to prevent the raft from turning over. In rough weather, keep the sea anchor away from the bow. Have the passengers sit low in the raft, with their weight distributed to hold the upwind side down. To prevent falling out, they should also avoid sitting on the sides of the raft or standing up. Avoid sudden movements without warning the other passengers. When the sea anchor is not in use, tie it to the raft and stow it in such a manner that it will hold immediately if the raft capsizes.
16-40. Water is your most important need. With it alone, you can live for ten days or longer, depending on your will to live. When drinking water, moisten your lips, tongue, and throat before swallowing.
16-41. When you have a limited water supply and you can't replace it by chemical or mechanical means, use the water efficiently. Protect freshwater supplies from seawater contamination. Keep your body well shaded, both from overhead sun and from reflection off the sea surface. Allow ventilation of air; dampen your clothes during the hottest part of the day. Do not exert yourself. Relax and sleep when possible. Fix your daily water ration after considering the amount of water you have, the output of solar stills and desalting kit, and the number and physical condition of your party.
16-42. If you don't have water, don't eat. If your water ration is two liters or more per day, eat any part of your ration or any additional food that you may catch, such as birds, fish, shrimp. The life raft's motion and your anxiety may cause nausea. If you eat when nauseated, you may lose your food immediately. If nauseated, rest and relax as much as you can, and take only water.
16-43. To reduce your loss of water through perspiration, soak your clothes in the sea and wring them out before putting them on again. Don't overdo this during hot days when no canopy or sun shield is available. This is a trade-off between cooling and the saltwater boils, sores, and rashes that will result. Be careful not to get the bottom of the raft wet.
16-44. Watch the clouds and be ready for any chance of showers. Keep the tarpaulin handy for catching water. If it is encrusted with dried salt, wash it in seawater. Normally, a small amount of seawater mixed with rain will hardly be noticeable and will not cause any physical reaction. In rough seas you cannot get uncontaminated fresh water.
16-45. At night, secure the tarpaulin like a sunshade, and turn up its edges to collect dew. It is also possible to collect dew along the sides of the raft using a sponge or cloth. When it rains, drink as much as you can hold.
Manual Reverse Osmosis Desalinator
16-46. Most rafts today are equipped with a manual reverse osmosis desalinator (MROD). The MROD is a very highly efficient water purifier designed to remove salt particles from seawater, thereby making seawater potable. The two most common models are the Survivor 35 and the Survivor 06, which make 35 and 6 gallons of potable water in a 24-hour period if used continuously. Water procurement at sea is a 24-hour-a-day job. The MROD's life cycle is up to 50,000 gallons of water. The MROD has a 10-year shelf life before it must be repacked by the manufacturer.
To operate the MROD, place both the intake (larger dual hose) and the potable water supply hose into the water. Begin a 2-second cycle of pumping the handle—one second up, one second down. A pressure indicator will protrude from the pump housing to show that the proper flow is being maintained. An orange band will be visible when the correct rhythm is maintained. Purge the antimicrobial packing agent from the filter medium for 2 minutes. Then begin to collect potable water.
NOTE: Ensure that the water is free from any petroleum residue (jet fuel, hydraulic fluid, or oil) before using an MROD. The filter medium is very sensitive to petroleum, oils, and lubricants, and will render the filter useless, destroying your water production capability.
16-47. When solar stills are available, read the instructions and set them up immediately. Use as many stills as possible, depending on the number of men in the raft and the amount of sunlight available. Secure solar stills to the raft with care. Solar stills only work on flat, calm seas.
16-48. When desalting kits are available in addition to solar stills, use them only for immediate water needs or during long overcast periods when you cannot use solar stills. In any event, keep desalting kits and emergency water stores for periods when you cannot use solar stills or catch rainwater.
Water From Fish
16-49. Drink the aqueous fluid found along the spine and in the eyes of large fish. Carefully cut the fish in half to get the fluid along the spine and suck the eye. If you are so short of water that you need to do this, then do not drink any of the other body fluids. These other fluids are rich in protein and fat and will use up more of your reserve water in digestion than they supply.
16-50. In arctic waters, use old sea ice for water. This ice is bluish, has rounded corners, and splinters easily. It is nearly free of salt. New ice is gray, milky, hard, and salty. Water from icebergs is fresh, but icebergs are dangerous to approach. Use them as a source of water only in emergencies.
16-51. As in any survival situation there are dangers when you are substituting or compromising necessities. Even though water is one of your basic needs, keep in mind the following tips.
16-52. Sleep and rest are the best ways of enduring periods of reduced water and food intake. However, make sure that you have enough shade when napping during the day. If the sea is rough, tie yourself to the raft, close any cover, and ride out the storm as best you can. Relax is the key word—at least try to relax.
16-53. In the open sea, fish will be the main food source. There are some poisonous and dangerous ocean fish, but, in general, when out of sight of land, fish are safe to eat. Nearer the shore there are fish that are both dangerous and poisonous to eat. There are some fish, such as the red snapper and barracuda, that are normally edible but poisonous when taken from the waters of atolls and reefs. Flying fish will even jump into your raft!
16-54. When fishing, do not handle the fishing line with bare hands and never wrap it around your hands or tie it to a life raft. The salt that adheres to it can make it a sharp cutting edge, an edge dangerous both to the raft and your hands. Wear gloves, if they are available, or use a cloth to handle fish and to avoid injury from sharp fins and gill covers.
16-55. In warm regions, gut and bleed fish immediately after catching them. Cut fish that you do not eat immediately into thin, narrow strips and hang them to dry. A well-dried fish stays edible for several days. Fish not cleaned and dried may spoil in half a day. Fish with dark meat are very prone to decomposition. If you do not eat them all immediately, do not eat any of the leftovers. Use the leftovers for bait.
16-56. Never eat fish that have pale, shiny gills, sunken eyes, flabby skin and flesh, or an unpleasant odor. Good fish show the opposite characteristics. Sea fish have a saltwater or clean fishy odor. Do not confuse eels with sea snakes that have an obviously scaly body and strongly compressed, paddle-shaped tail. Both eels and sea snakes are edible, but you must handle the latter with care because of their poisonous bites. The heart, blood, intestinal wall, and liver of most fish are edible. Cook the intestines. Also edible are the partly digested smaller fish that you may find in the stomachs of large fish. In addition, sea turtles are edible.
16-57. Shark meat is a good source of food whether raw, dried, or cooked. Shark meat spoils very rapidly due to the high concentration of urea in the blood; therefore, bleed it immediately and soak it in several changes of water. People prefer some shark species over others. Consider them all edible except the Greenland shark, whose flesh contains high quantities of vitamin A. Do not eat the livers, due to high vitamin A content.
16-58. The accessory kit contains a very good fishing kit that should meet your needs just about anywhere around the world. You can also use different materials to make fishing aids as described in the following paragraphs:
These you may eat or use for bait. You may eat seaweed itself, but only when you have plenty of drinking water. Improvise grapples from wood. Use a heavy piece of wood as the main shaft, and lash three smaller pieces to the shaft as grapples.
Helpful Fishing Hints
16-59. Your fishing should be successful if you remember the following important hints:
16-60. As stated in Chapter 8, all sea birds are edible. Eat any birds you can catch. Sometimes birds may land on your raft, but usually they are cautious. You may be able to attract some birds by towing a bright piece of metal behind the raft. This will bring the bird within shooting range, provided you have a firearm.
16-61. If a bird lands within your reach, you may be able to catch it. If the birds do not land close enough or land on the other end of the raft, you may be able to catch them with a bird noose. Bait the center of the noose and wait for the bird to land. When the bird's feet are in the center of the noose, pull it tight.
16-62. Use all parts of the bird. Use the feathers for insulation, the entrails and feet for bait, and so on. Use your imagination.
MEDICAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH SEA SURVIVAL
16-63. At sea, you may become seasick, get saltwater sores, or face some of the same medical problems that occur on land, such as dehydration, hypothermia, or sunburn. These problems can become critical if left untreated.
16-64. Seasickness is the nausea and vomiting caused by the motion of the raft. It can result in—
16-65. To treat seasickness—
NOTE: Some people at sea have said that erecting a canopy or using the horizon or a cloud as a focal point helped overcome seasickness. Others have said that swimming alongside the raft for short periods helped, but extreme care must be taken if swimming.
16-66. These sores result from a break in skin exposed to saltwater for an extended period. They may also occur at the areas that your clothing binds you—your waist, ankles, or wrist. The sores may form scabs and pus. Do not open or drain the sores. Flush them with freshwater, if available, and allow to dry. Apply an antiseptic, if available.
Immersion Rot, Frostbite, and Hypothermia
16-67. These problems are similar to those encountered in cold weather environments. Symptoms and treatment are the same as covered in Chapter 15.
Blindness or Headache
16-68. If flame, smoke, or other contaminants get in the eyes, flush them immediately with saltwater, then with freshwater, if available. Apply ointment, if available. Bandage both eyes 18 to 24 hours, or longer if damage is severe. If the glare from the sky and water causes your eyes to become bloodshot and inflamed, bandage them lightly. Try to prevent this problem by wearing sunglasses. Improvise sunglasses if necessary.
16-69. This condition is a common problem on a raft. Do not take a laxative, as this will cause further dehydration. Exercise as much as possible and drink an adequate amount of water, if available.
16-70. This problem is not unusual and is due mainly to dehydration. It is best not to treat it, as it could cause further dehydration.
16-71. Sunburn is a serious problem in sea survival. Try to prevent sunburn by staying in the shade and keeping your head and skin covered. Use cream or lip salve from your first-aid kit. Remember, reflection from the water also causes sunburn in places where the sun usually doesn't burn you—tender skin under the earlobes, eyebrows, nose, chin, and underarms.
16-72. Whether you are in the water or in a boat or raft, you may see many types of sea life around you. Some may be more dangerous than others. Generally, sharks are the greatest danger to you. Other animals, such as whales, porpoises, and stingrays, may look dangerous, but really pose little threat in the open sea.
16-73. Of the many hundreds of shark species, only about 20 species are known to attack man. The most dangerous are the great white shark, the hammerhead, the mako, and the tiger shark. Other sharks known to attack man include the gray, blue, lemon, sand, nurse, bull, and oceanic white-tip sharks. Consider any shark longer than 1 meter (3 feet) dangerous.
16-74. There are sharks in all oceans and seas of the world. While many live and feed in the depths of the sea, others hunt near the surface. The sharks living near the surface are the ones you will most likely see. Their dorsal fins frequently project above the water. Sharks in the tropical and subtropical seas are far more aggressive than those in temperate waters.
16-75. All sharks are basically eating machines. Their normal diet is live animals of any type, and they will strike at injured or helpless animals. Sight, smell, or sound may guide them to their prey. Sharks have an acute sense of smell and the smell of blood in the water excites them. They are also very sensitive to any abnormal vibrations in the water. The struggles of a wounded animal or swimmer, underwater explosions, or even a fish struggling on a fishline will attract a shark.
16-76. Sharks can bite from almost any position; they do not have to turn on their side to bite. The jaws of some of the larger sharks are so far forward that they can bite floating objects easily without twisting to the side.
16-77. Sharks may hunt alone, but most reports of attacks cite more than one shark present. The smaller sharks tend to travel in schools and attack in mass. Whenever one of the sharks finds a victim, the other sharks will quickly join it. Sharks will eat a wounded shark as quickly as their prey.
16-78. Sharks feed at all hours of the day and night. Most reported shark contacts and attacks were during daylight, and many of these have been in the late afternoon. Some of the measures that you can take to protect yourself against sharks when you are in the water are—
16-79. If a shark attack is imminent while you are in the water, splash and yell just enough to keep the shark at bay. Sometimes yelling underwater or slapping the water repeatedly will scare the shark away. Conserve your strength for fighting in case the shark attacks.
16-80. If attacked, kick and strike the shark. Hit the shark on the gills or eyes if possible. If you hit the shark on the nose, you may injure your hand if it glances off and hits its teeth.
16-81. When you are in a raft and see sharks—
16-82. When you are in a raft and a shark attack is imminent, hit the shark with anything you have, except your hands. You will do more damage to your hands than the shark. If you strike with an oar, be careful not to lose or break it.
16-83. You should watch carefully for any signs of land. There are many indicators that land is near.
16-84. A fixed cumulus cloud in a clear sky or in a sky where all other clouds are moving often hovers over or slightly downwind from an island.
16-85. In the tropics, the reflection of sunlight from shallow lagoons or shelves of coral reefs often causes a greenish tint in the sky.
16-86. In the arctic, light-colored reflections on clouds often indicate ice fields or snow-covered land. These reflections are quite different from the dark gray ones caused by open water.
16-87. Deep water is dark green or dark blue. Lighter color indicates shallow water, which may mean land is near.
16-88. At night, or in fog, mist, or rain, you may detect land by odors and sounds. The musty odor of mangrove swamps and mud flats carry a long way. You hear the roar of surf long before you see the surf. The continued cries of seabirds coming from one direction indicate their roosting place on nearby land.
16-89. There usually are more birds near land than over the open sea. The direction from which flocks fly at dawn and to which they fly at dusk may indicate the direction of land. During the day, birds are searching for food and the direction of flight has no significance.
16-90. Mirages occur at any latitude, but they are more likely in the tropics, especially during the middle of the day. Be careful not to mistake a mirage for nearby land. A mirage disappears or its appearance and elevation change when viewed from slightly different heights.
16-91. You may be able to detect land by the pattern of the waves (refracted) as they approach land (Figure 16-18). By traveling with the waves and parallel to the slightly turbulent area marked "X" on the illustration, you should reach land.
Figure 16-18. Wave Patterns About an Island
RAFTING OR BEACHING TECHNIQUES
16-92. Once you have found land, you must get ashore safely. To raft ashore, you can usually use the one-man raft without danger. However, going ashore in a strong surf is dangerous. Take your time. Select your landing point carefully. Try not to land when the sun is low and straight in front of you. Try to land on the lee side of an island or on a point of land jutting out into the water. Keep your eyes open for gaps in the surf line, and head for them. Avoid coral reefs and rocky cliffs. There are no coral reefs near the mouths of freshwater streams. Avoid rip currents or strong tidal currents that may carry you far out to sea. Either signal ashore for help or sail around and look for a sloping beach where the surf is gentle.
16-93. If you have to go through the surf to reach shore, take down the mast. Keep your clothes and shoes on to avoid severe cuts. Adjust and inflate your life vest. Trail the sea anchor over the stem using as much line as you have. Use the oars or paddles and constantly adjust the sea anchor to keep a strain on the anchor line. These actions will keep the raft pointed toward shore and prevent the sea from throwing the stern around and capsizing you. Use the oars or paddles to help ride in on the seaward side of a large wave.
16-94. The surf may be irregular and velocity may vary, so modify your procedure as conditions demand. A good method of getting through the surf is to have half the men sit on one side of the raft, half on the other, facing away from each other. When a heavy sea bears down, half should row (pull) toward the sea until the crest passes; then the other half should row (pull) toward the shore until the next heavy sea comes along.
16-95. Against a strong wind and heavy surf, the raft must have all possible speed to pass rapidly through the oncoming crest to avoid being turned broadside or thrown end over end. If possible, avoid meeting a large wave at the moment it breaks.
16-96. If in a medium surf with no wind or offshore wind, keep the raft from passing over a wave so rapidly that it drops suddenly after topping the crest. If the raft turns over in the surf, try to grab hold of it and ride it in.
16-97. As the raft nears the beach, ride in on the crest of a large wave. Paddle or row hard and ride in to the beach as far as you can. Do not jump out of the raft until it has grounded, then quickly get out and beach it.
16-98. If you have a choice, do not land at night. If you have reason to believe that people live on the shore, lay away from the beach, signal, and wait for the inhabitants to come out and bring you in.
16-99. If you encounter sea ice, land only on large, stable floes. Avoid icebergs that may capsize and small floes or those obviously disintegrating. Use oars and hands to keep the raft from rubbing on the edge of the ice. Take the raft out of the water and store it well back from the floe's edge. You may be able to use it for shelter. Keep the raft inflated and ready for use. Any floe may break up without warning.
16-100. If rafting ashore is not possible and you have to swim, wear your shoes and at least one thickness of clothing. Use the sidestroke or breaststroke to conserve strength.
16-101. If the surf is moderate, ride in on the back of a small wave by swimming forward with it. Dive to a shallow depth to end the ride just before the wave breaks.
16-102. In high surf, swim toward shore in the trough between waves. When the seaward wave approaches, face it and submerge. After it passes, work toward shore in the next trough. If caught in the undertow of a large wave, push off the bottom or swim to the surface and proceed toward shore as above.
16-103. If you must land on a rocky shore, look for a place where the waves rush up onto the rocks. Avoid places where the waves explode with a high, white spray. Swim slowly when making your approach. You will need your strength to hold on to the rocks. You should be fully clothed and wear shoes to reduce injury.
16-104. After selecting your landing point, advance behind a large wave into the breakers. Face toward shore and take a sitting position with your feet in front, 60 to 90 centimeters (2 or 3 feet) lower than your head. This position will let your feet absorb the shock when you land or strike submerged boulders or reefs. If you do not reach shore behind the wave you picked, swim with your hands only. As the next wave approaches, take a sitting position with your feet forward. Repeat the procedure until you land.
16-105. Water is quieter in the lee of a heavy growth of seaweed. Take advantage of such growth. Do not swim through the seaweed; crawl over the top by grasping the vegetation with overhand movements.
16-106. Cross a rocky or coral reef as you would land on a rocky shore. Keep your feet close together and your knees slightly bent in a relaxed sitting posture to cushion the blows against the coral.
PICKUP OR RESCUE
16-107. On sighting rescue craft approaching for pickup (boat, ship, conventional aircraft, or helicopter), quickly clear any lines (fishing lines, desalting kit lines) or other gear that could cause entanglement during rescue. Secure all loose items in the raft. Take down canopies and sails to ensure a safer pickup. After securing all items, put on your helmet, if available. Fully inflate your life preserver. Remain in the raft, unless otherwise instructed, and remove all equipment except the preservers. If possible, you will receive help from rescue personnel lowered into the water. Remember, follow all instructions given by the rescue personnel.
16-108. If the helicopter recovery is unassisted, do the following before pickup:
previous | next
All text and images from the U.S. Army Field Manual 3-05.70: Survival.
Appearance of these materials here does not constitute or represent endorsement by mongabay.com.
Mongabay.com is not responsible for inaccurate or outdated information provided by the U.S. Army Field Manual 3-05.70.
what's new | for kids | rainforests | other languages | search | about | contact
Copyright Rhett Butler 2004-2008
mongabay.com is a free resource.