Safety / Survival / Army Field Manuals / AFM 3-05.70
Ropes and Knots
G-1. To be able to construct shelters, traps and snares, weapons and tools,
and other devices; you should have a basic knowledge of ropes and knots and some
of the terminology used with them. The terms are as follows:
Bight. A simple bend of rope in which the rope does not cross
Dressing the knot. The orientation of all knot parts so that they
are properly aligned, straightened, or bundled. Neglecting this can result
in an additional 50 percent reduction in knot strength. This term is
sometimes used for setting the knot which involves tightening all parts of
the knot so they bind on one another and make the knot operational. A
loosely tied knot can easily deform under strain and change, becoming a
slipknot or worse, untying.
Fraps. A means of tightening the lashings by looping the rope
perpendicularly around the wraps that hold the spars or sticks together.
Lashings. A means of using wraps and fraps to tie two or three
spars or sticks together to form solid corners or to construct tripods.
Lashings begin and end with clove hitches.
Lay. The lay of the rope is the same as the twist of the rope.
Loop. A loop is formed by crossing the running end over or under
the standing end to form a ring or circle in the rope.
Pig tail. That part of the running end that is left after tying
the knot. It should be no more than 4 inches long to conserve rope and
Running end. The free or working end of a rope. This is the part
of the rope you are actually using to tie the knot.
Standing end. The static part of rope or rest of the rope besides
the running end.
Turn. A loop around an object such as a post, rail, or ring with
the running end continuing in the opposite direction to the standing end. A
round turn continues to circle and exits in the same general direction as
the standing end.
Whipping. Any method of preventing the end of a rope from
untwisting or becoming unwound. It is done by wrapping the end tightly with
a small cord, tape or other means. It should be done on both sides of an
anticipated cut in a rope, before cutting the rope in two. This prevents the
rope from immediately untwisting.
Wraps (Figure G-1). Simple wraps of rope
around two poles or sticks (square lashing) or three poles or sticks (tripod
lashing). Wraps begin and end with clove hitches and get tighter with fraps.
All together, they form a lashing.
Figure G-1. Wraps
G-2. The basic knots and methods of tying them that you should know for your
survival are as follows:
Half-hitch. This is the simplest of all knots and used to be the
safety, or finishing, knot for all Army knots. Because it had a tendency to
undo itself without load, it has since been replaced by the overhand.
Overhand (Figure G-2). This is the
simple knot that most people tie everyday as the first half of tying their
shoes. It can also be used to temporarily whip the end of a rope. This knot
should replace the half-hitch as a finishing knot for other knots. This knot
alone will reduce the strength of a straight rope by 55 percent.
Figure G-2. Overhand Knot
Square (Figure G-3). A good, simple
knot for general purpose use. This knot is basically two overhand knots that
are reversed, as in Right over Left, Left over Right. It is used to tie the
ends of two ropes of equal diameter together (just like your shoe laces) and
must be secured with an overhand on both ends. It is easy to inspect, as it
forms two loops and is easy to untie after being loaded.
Round turn and two half-hitches (Figure G-4).
This is the main anchor knot for one-rope bridges and other applications
when a good anchor knot is required and where high loads would make other
knots jam and difficult to untie. It is most used to anchor rope to a pole
Figure G-3. Square Knot Secured by Overhand Knots
Figure G-4. Round Turn and Two Half-Hitches
Figure G-5. Clove Hitch
Figure G-6. End-of-the-Line Clove Hitch
Figure G-7. Sheep Shank
Double sheet bend (Figure G-8). This knot is
used to tie together the ends of two ropes of equal or unequal diameter. It
will also join wet rope and not slip or draw tight under load. It can be
used to tie the ends of several ropes to the end of one rope. When a single
rope is tied to multiple ropes, the bight is formed with the multiple of
Figure G-8. Double Sheet Bend
Prusik (Figures G-9 through G-11). This knot
ties a short rope around a longer rope (for example, a sling rope around a
climbing rope) in such a manner that the short rope will slide on the
climbing rope if no tension is applied, and will hold if tension is applied
on the short rope. This knot can be tied with an end of rope or bight of
rope. When tied with an end of rope, the knot is finished off with a
bowline. The nonslip nature of the knot on another rope allows climbing of
ropes with foot holds. It can also be used to anchor ropes or the end of a
traction splint on a branch or ski pole.
Figure G-9. Prusik, End of Line
Figure G-10. Prusik, End of Line and Center of Line
Figure G-11. Prusik, End of Line With Bowline for Safety
Bowline and bowline finished with an overhand knot (Figure
G-12). Around-the-body bowline was the basic knot used for rescue for
many years as it provided a loop, which could be placed around the body,
that would not slip nor tighten up under strain. It has been replaced by the
figure 8 in most applications as the figure 8 does not weaken the rope as
Figure G-12. Bowline and Bowline Finished With an Overhand
Figure 8 and retraceable figure 8 (Figure G-13).
This knot is the main rescue knot in use today. It has the advantage of
being stronger than the bowline and is easier to tie and check. Its one
disadvantage is that when wet, it may be more difficult to untie than the
bowline after being stressed. The figure 8 (or figure-of-eight) can be used
as an anchor knot on fixed ropes. It can also be used to prevent the end of
a rope from slipping through a fastening or loop in another rope when a knot
larger than an overhand knot is needed.
Figure G-13. Figure 8 and Retraceable Figure 8
VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION LASHINGS
G-3. There are numerous items that require lashings for construction. Figures
G-14 through G-16 show types of lashings that you can use when constructing
tripods, shelters, and racks. Refer to paragraphs
12-25 and 12-26 if using field-expedient rope.
Figure G-14. Shears Lashing
Figure G-15. Square Lashing
Figure G-16. Tripod Lashing
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