Safety / Survival / Army Field Manuals / AFM 3-05.70
Expedient Water Crossings
17-1. You can apply almost every description to rivers and streams. They may
be shallow or deep, slow or fast moving, narrow or wide. Before you try to cross
a river or stream, develop a good plan.
17-2. Your first step is to look for a high place from which you can get a
good view of the river or stream. From this place, you can look for a place to
cross. If there is no high place, climb a tree. Good crossing locations
A level stretch where it breaks into several channels. Two or three
narrow channels are usually easier to cross than a wide river.
A shallow bank or sandbar. If possible, select a point upstream from the
bank or sandbar so that the current will carry you to it if you lose your
A course across the river that leads downstream so that you will cross
the current at about a 45-degree angle.
17-3. The following areas possess potential hazards; avoid them, if possible:
Obstacles on the opposite side of the river that might hinder your
travel. Try to select the spot from which travel will be the safest and
A ledge of rocks that crosses the river. This often indicates dangerous
rapids or canyons.
A deep or rapid waterfall or a deep channel. Never try to ford a stream
directly above or even close to such hazards.
Rocky places that could cause you to sustain serious injuries from
slipping or falling. Usually, submerged rocks are very slick, making balance
extremely difficult. An occasional rock that breaks the current, however,
may help you.
An estuary of a river because it is normally wide, has strong currents,
and is subject to tides. These tides can influence some rivers many
kilometers from their mouths. Go back upstream to an easier crossing site.
Eddies, which can produce a powerful backward pull downstream of the
obstruction causing the eddy and pull you under the surface.
17-4. The depth of a fordable river or stream is no deterrent if you can keep
your footing. In fact, deep water sometimes runs more slowly and is therefore
safer than fast-moving shallow water. You can always dry your clothes later, or
if necessary, you can make a raft to carry your clothing and equipment across
17-5. You must not try to swim or wade across a stream or river when the
water is at very low temperatures. This swim could be fatal. Try to make a raft
of some type. Wade across if you can get only your feet wet. Dry them vigorously
as soon as you reach the other bank.