Safety / Survival / Army Field Manuals / AFM 3-05.70
6-1. Almost any environment has water present to some degree. Figure 6-1 lists possible sources of water in various environments. It also provides information on how to make the water potable.
NOTE: If you do not have a canteen, cup, can, or other type of container, improvise one from plastic or water-resistant cloth. Shape the plastic or cloth into a bowl by pleating it. Use pins or other suitable items—even your hands—to hold the pleats.
Figure 6-1. Water Sources in Different Environments
Figure 6-1. Water Sources in Different Environments (Continued)
6-2. If you do not have a reliable source to replenish your water supply, stay alert for ways in which your environment can help you.
NOTE: DO NOT substitute the fluids listed in Figure 6-2 for water.
Figure 6-2. The Effects of Substitute Fluids
6-3. Heavy dew can provide water. Tie rags or tufts of fine grass around your ankles and walk through dew-covered grass before sunrise. As the rags or grass tufts absorb the dew, wring the water into a container. Repeat the process until you have a supply of water or until the dew is gone. Australian natives sometimes mop up as much as 1 liter an hour this way.
6-4. Bees or ants going into a hole in a tree may point to a water-filled hole. Siphon the water with plastic tubing or scoop it up with an improvised dipper. You can also stuff cloth in the hole to absorb the water and then wring it from the cloth.
6-5. Water sometimes gathers in tree crotches or rock crevices. Use the above procedures to get the water. In arid areas, bird droppings around a crack in the rocks may indicate water in or near the crack.
6-6. Green bamboo thickets are an excellent source of fresh water. Water from green bamboo is clear and odorless. To get the water, bend a green bamboo stalk, tie it down, and cut off the top (Figure 6-3). The water will drip freely during the night. Old, cracked bamboo may also contain water.
Figure 6-3. Water From Green Bamboo
6-7. Wherever you find banana trees, plantain trees, or sugarcane, you can get water. Cut down the tree, leaving about a 30-centimeter (12-inch) stump, and scoop out the center of the stump so that the hollow is bowl-shaped. Water from the roots will immediately start to fill the hollow. The first three fillings of water will be bitter, but succeeding fillings will be palatable. The stump (Figure 6-4) will supply water for up to 4 days. Be sure to cover it to keep out insects.
Figure 6-4. Water From Plantain or Banana Tree Stump
6-8. Some tropical vines can give you water. Cut a notch in the vine as high as you can reach, then cut the vine off close to the ground. Catch the dropping liquid in a container or in your mouth (Figure 6-5).
Figure 6-5. Water From a Vine
6-9. The milk from young, green (unripe) coconuts is a good thirst quencher. However, the milk from mature, brown, coconuts contains an oil that acts as a laxative. Drink in moderation only.
6-10. In the American tropics you may find large trees whose branches support air plants. These air plants may hold a considerable amount of rainwater in their overlapping, thickly growing leaves. Strain the water through a cloth to remove insects and debris.
6-11. You can get water from plants with moist pulpy centers. Cut off a section of the plant and squeeze or smash the pulp so that the moisture runs out. Catch the liquid in a container.
6-12. Plant roots may provide water. Dig or pry the roots out of the ground, cut them into short pieces, and smash the pulp so that the moisture runs out. Catch the liquid in a container.
6-13. Fleshy leaves, stems, or stalks, such as bamboo, contain water. Cut or notch the stalks at the base of a joint to drain out the liquid.
6-14. The following trees can also provide water:
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